Biology 2107 Fall, 2022
Name: __________________________ ID#: _____________________
Please circle the letters that precede the most appropriate answer(s) to the question asked. Each correct answer is worth 2pts. Be aware that, unless stated otherwise, a couple of questions MAY have more than one answer. Consequently, when you circle more than one letter in any answer to any given question, an incorrectly circled letter will count against you.
Be careful, some answers may be “true”, but are not relevant to the question being asked.
1 The “Gaia hypothesis”
A. is founded on aspects of Greek mythology that have a place in evolutionary thought
B. suggests that the world is a sphere revolving around the sun
C. is founded on the idea that the earth is effectively a “living organism”
D. is founded on the idea that life on this earth may have evolved from alien life forms
E. is focused exclusively upon addressing the fact that the energy sources within the earth’s matrix is being exhausted.
F. is founded on the idea that Life can only exist on Earth.
2. The term “Directional Selection” refers to: ONLY ONE ANSWER
A. a signal that causes organisms to change direction
B. a guidance system for evolving individuals
C. the skewing of the distribution of a given phenotype of a population in one direction
D. the skewing of the distribution of an individual organism’s phenotype in one direction
E. Both C & D
F. a specific option leading to speciation
3. Charles Darwin argued that evolution is accomplished by the process of natural selection. Which of the following is not important to the concept of natural selection?
A. Most organisms are capable of producing more offspring than typically survive.
B. Evidence exists that Earth is much older than previously thought.
C. Much phenotypic variation exists within populations.
D. Genotypic variation within a population can influence reproductive success.
E. Phenotypic variation within a species is solely due to inherited characteristics of the individuals.
4. Based on our discussions in the lectures, which of the following statements is/are correct
A. Observation and the ability to test those observations form the corner stone of scientific method in Biology
B. “Science” is the study of Life
C. A scientific hypothesis is entirely rooted in fact
D. There is no such thing as a fact
E. Theories, by definition, are infallible.
F. Hypotheses, by definition, are “wrong”.
5. Populations that are separated from one another absent any physical barrier are often called.
6. Please select the best combination of terms to complete the following statement. 4pts. If only one correct 2 pts.
“Two populations of moths may be diverging because one primarily mates in mid-Spring, while the other primarily mates in early Summer. This would be an example of ____________ , that is a ____________ mechanism of isolation
G. Reproductive isolation, postzygotic
H. Gametic mortality, prezygotic
I. Temporal isolation, postzygotic
J. Behavioural isolation, postzygotic
K. Temporal isolation, prezygotic
L. Gametic isolation, prezygotic
7. From your understanding of the lecture material thus far, which of the following statements would you agree with? 4pts -EFFECTIVELY ALL ARE CONSIDERED CORRECT
A. Science is a religion, just by another name
B. Science inevitably conflicts with religious beliefs
C. Science brings some religious dogmas such as a “god of the gaps” into
D. Evolution provides some insight(s) into how living matter works
E. Science will eventually replace religious beliefs
F. Evolution suggests that there really is no God
G. Science is only pertinent to the “here” and the “now”.
8. The height of doors in olde houses in England suggest that people back in the 1700’s were relatively small. The overt change in the average height of people in the British isles -even since the 1700’s- can be attributed to
A. A “stabilizing selective” change
B. All the tall people up and left for the Americas
C. A “directional selective” change
D. A “redistributive selective” change
E. A “disruptive selective” change
G. Bad Posture
9. From our discussions in lecture and viewing of the movie on whales, which of the following statement(s) were mentioned in one of the movies? 6pts
A. Whales can breath under water
B. Whales have an attached pelvis.
C. Whales have always lived in the sea
D. The Sahara desert was once below sea level
E. Whales have an unusually small hip bone.
F. Whales swim like Doberman pinschers (dogs) run.
G. Effectively, whales evolved from wolves
10. Darwin’s first great opus the “Origin of Species” was written as a consequence of his travels on which ship:
B. The Dawn Treader
C. The Victory
D. The Titanic
E. The Beagle
F. The Bounty
G. The Santa Maria
11. Which of the following statements does not belong in the “Scientific Method” discussed in lectures? 6pts
A. Making an observation.
B. Circular logic
C. Asking for help from a colleague
D. Making a prediction based simply on observation.
E. Retesting already proven Theories
F. Falsifying data
12. “Genetic drift” can be understood to mean
A. The random wanderings of a person named “Genetic”
B. The random flow of genetic information from one species to the next.
C. The flow of genetic information from one population to the next.
D. The ramblings of the average Genetics Professor
E. The random change in allele frequency within a population over time
13. A “genotype” can be defined as:
14. From the information given in the lectures, the Galapagos islands were a potential haven for Darwin to appreciate the nuances of his theory, because:
F. The islands are west of South America, and are, therefore, within the warm waters off the coast of Ecuador.
G. The islands provided sufficient isolation for small populations of finches to rarely interact with their mainland relatives
H. The islands were sparse but provided a more than suitable environment for the finches to live well. Consequently exaggerating the environmental impact of natural selection.
I. The islands were lush and provided more than an ample environment for the finch populations to swell in number -enhancing genetic drift.
J. Life was thought to have begun on these islands.
K. England was just too darn cold and wet for Darwin to be able to do any proper field studies
15. The scientific name of an organism is Dendroica pennsylvanica. Another organism named Dendroica petechiae belongs to the same ______________ 6pts for A,B & C
OR for C & G
F. All of the above
G. A and B above
16. The “Founder effect” is thought to give rise to: