Biology 2107                      Test  #1                           Fall, 2022



Name: __________________________                         ID#: ______________________



Section 1a (32 pts.)

Please circle the letters that precede the most appropriate answer(s) to the question asked.  Circling more than one letter in answering any given question will count against you. 




1.      The biological species concept (BSC) states that:


A.        species are groups of potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively available to all other such groups.

B.        species are groups of actually interbreeding populations which are sometimes reproductively isolated from other such groups.

C.        species are groups of actually, or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.

D.     species are groups of actively interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively similar to other such groups.

E.        species are groups of potentially interbreeding subpopulations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.


2.      The purpose of Mitosis Is to:

A.     Help an Organism grow larger.

B.     Produce the Sex gametes.

C.     duplicate the cell while maintaining genetic constancy.

D.     provide for genetic mutations.

E.     Provide for Genetic variation through Genetic Drift.


3.     A “hinny” is an example of:


A.        A hybrid offspring that is an example of a prezygotic barrier.

B.        A consequence of spatial isolation resulting in gametic interactions

C.        A hybrid offspring that is an example of a postzygotic barrier.

D.        A consequence of postsynaptic rigor.

E.        A wonderful and friendly four legged rodent.

F.        A hybrid offspring that is an example of a postsynaptic barrier.

G.       A consequence of hybrid vigor.


4.     A Haploid Cell


A.     always contains half the number of chromosomes as its parental cell

B.     contains a single set of unpaired chromosomes.

C.     is a cell that is said to me in Mitosis.

D.     always analogous to a “germ-line” cell.

E.     None of the above

F.     A & B


5.      According to information specifically given in one of the lectures a classical example of “adaptive radiation” can be seen in


A.     peppered moths.

B.     mules

C.     Darwins’s finches.

D.     Hawaiian finches .

E.     Ecuadorian blackbirds


6.      Consider the phylogenetic tree below, which should be familiar to you



Description automatically generated


What is the order of the different types of taxa shown,


A.     1. paraphyletic taxon, 2. polyphyletic taxon, 3. monophyletic taxon

B.     1. paraphyletic taxon, 2. monophyletic taxon, 3. polyphyletic taxon

C.     1. diphyletic taxon, 2. monophyletic taxon, 3. triphyletic taxon

D.     1. monophyletic taxon, 2. polyphyletic taxon, 3. paraphyletic taxon

E.     1. monophyletic taxon, 2. diphyletic taxon, 3. triphyletic taxon


7.      In which phase of a cell’s cycle is the majority of its DNA replicated ?


A.     Prophase

B.     Interphase

C.     Anaphase

D.     Prometaphase

E.     Gap1 phase

F.     Interkinesis


8.      What is the generic “currency” of energy for most living organisms?


A.        Oxygen

B.        Water

C.        ATP

D.        Vitamin B12

E.        OTU

F.        AMP


9.      What kind of selection is occurring if both the smallest and the largest individuals contribute relatively more offspring to the next generation than those closer to the average height?


A.     Disruptive selection

B.     Stabilizing selection

C.     Disruptive selection and stabilizing selection

D.     Directional selection

E.     Directional selection and stabilizing selection


10.   According to one of the movies… Evolution -when taken to its logical conclusion- would suggest that:


A.      All living organisms share a common heritage.

B.      Shared traits always suggest a shared heritage.

C.      Mass extinction of species is a necessary consequence of evolutionary change.

D.      All of the above.

E.      A and B only. 



11.   According to geological data and fossil records (that we reviewed in an early lecture), which one of the following statements do you consider to be most likely?


A.        The temperature of the earth has stayed relatively constant over the last million years,

B.        The first eukaryotic cells emerged around 16 million years ago (mya),

C.        Around 500 million years ago most of the earth’s continents were in the Southern hemisphere.

D.        Around 600 mya Oxygen levels in the atmosphere were twice the level that they are today

E.        Whales are direct descendents of the modern day wolf.

F.        Man is not responsible for any of the climatic changes that have occurred over the last century.



12.   The term “carrying capacity” refers to:


A.     The ability of animals -such as pandas- to hold or carry bamboo shoots.

A.        The limits of a population that are defined by its genetic variation.

B.        The number of genes within a given population.

C.        The maximal population size within a given environment.

D.        The number of obvious phenotypic traits that arise in a population.



13.   According to the arguments detailed in the class, thus far, which of the following is NOT a cause of change in the genetic structure of a given population?


A.     Mutation

B.     Gene flow

C.     Genetic drift

D.     Cell division

E.     Natural selection


14.   Which one of the following statements distinguishes a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic cell?


A.        The prokaryotic cell has a nucleus.

B.        The eukaryotic cell is often much smaller.

C.        The eukaryotic cell has a nuclear membrane.

D.        The prokaryotic cell has at least one cell membrane.

E.        The prokaryotic cell is a single celled organism.        


If  all statements above  are true then circle     “F”.   

If  all statements above  are not true then circle    “G”



15.   The average bacterial cell is approximately:


A.        1.5 – 3 µm in length,

B.        1 - 5 nm in length.

C.        100-500 µm in length.

D.        1m in diameter.

E.        1mm in diameter.


16.   How small / large is Thiomargarita magnifica?   


F.        1.5 – 3 µm in length,

G.       1 - 5 nm in length.

H.        106 µm in length.

I.          1m in diameter.

J.         1mm in diameter.



Bonus: Other than Thiomagarita magnifica, name one bacterium __Escherichia________  ___coli______ ,

What is it’s Genus? __ Escherichia________ 



Section 1b (16 pts.)

In the next few answers, From the list of words given please insert the most appropriate word(s) into the spaces provided and then answer any other additional questions.


17.      (a)   (4 pts) Place the categories listed below in their correct order of hierarchy –according to Linnaean grouping  (you can go up or down –it doesn’t matter).


Domain,   Genus,     Kingdom,    Class,    Phylum,  Species ,    


___ Domain ____    ___ Kingdom ____    ____ Phylum ____    ___ Class___  


____ Genus _____    ___ Species ___



 (a)   (2 pts) Which category(ies)  is (are)  missing?


___Order___   ____Family___ 


18.      (2 pts)

A picture containing text

Description automatically generated


Given your knowledge of Cell division, in which phase of Mitosis would the represented chromosome be found.


A.     Prophase

B.     Metaphase

C.     Ataphase

D.     Anaphase

E.     Meta-Prophase

F.     Mitotic dysphasia


19.      Allele Frequencies,           Aponymous Frequencies,           Phenotype,              Equanimity, 

Gene flow,                           Mutualism,                                       Genetic Drift,          Gene Pool

Random Drift,                     Non-Darwinian Selection             Genetic toolkit,             Onomatoplasia,

Genetic Frequencies         Commensalism.


 (a).     (2 pts) The frequencies of the variant types of genes being present in a population are called _ Allele Frequencies _


 (b).     (2 pts) The _ Gene Pool __  is the sum total of genetic information in a population at any given moment. It includes every allele at every locus in every organism within that population.


 (c).     (2 pts) In a small population, small changes in the allele frequencies over time result from chance events and this is called

__ Genetic Drift ___.


20.      (2 pts)   Food,    Shelter, Genotype,   Disease,    Predation,  Genetic Drift     


Choosing from the preceding list, “Environmental limitations on a Population’s growth” include: 


            ___ Food _____,   ___ Shelter ____,  ____ Disease ______,   ___ Predation ___ “


Section 2 (35 pts)


Please answer the following questions either using short, concise answers, or by explaining why you made appropriate changes that you have to any figure -again using short, concise explanations.


2.1 (6 pts.) Compare and contrast the terms “Allopatric” and “Sympatric” speciation events.  Give an example of one.


Allopatric speciation occurs in separate, non-overlapping geographical areas, that is normally

separated by a significant geographic barrierl


Sympatric speciation occurs in in populations while bot continue to inhabit the same geographic location,

i.e no geographic barrier


lecture 5 halfway down




2.2 (6 pts.) Given your knowledge of evolutionary development of organisms discuss one of the hypotheses as to the origins of heterotrophic and photosynthetic eukaryotic cells from more simple cellular forms.



Description automatically generated _Diagram

Description automatically generated




2.3. (6 pts.) Briefly discuss some of the differences between “Gram positive” and “Gram negative” bacteria.


   Fundamentally, Gram positive cells have a singular cell membrane surrounded by a very thick murein layer,

while Gram negative cells have two membranes, creating the “periplasmic space” (effectively an organelle)

in which there is a thin layer of “murein sheath (peptidoglycan layer), which provides rigidity and strength to

the cell.

A picture containing screenshot

Description automatically generatedA close up of a piece of paper

Description automatically generated




2.4a. (6 pts.) List three quite distinct differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes


   Murein sheath/layer, size, method of cell division, presence/absence of nucleus, presence/absence of

 multiple organelles etc,


2.4b. (3 pts.) Give one similarity between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which might indicate evolutionary relationships between the two.

See answer 2.3, but the similarity MUST suggest “common heritage”, such DNA, use of L-amino acids,D-sugars, central dogma etc. .



2.5 . (8 pts.) In the Figure below, not knowing the fundamentals of potential evolutionary constraints on populations,

the artist has made more than a couple of fundamental mistakes.  Having taken Biol2107, however, with a little bit of care

and an eye for detail you are easily able to recognize these mistakes.

So, please circle each mistake  (1pt each) and then in the space provided below

the figure explain why you circled what you did. (1 pt each).


A picture containing diagram

Description automatically generated



Why?___Directional selection misidentified__________________________________







Why?___Stabilizing Selection misidentified _________________________________







Why?____Lizards in the 3rd figure on bottom row have been rearranged such that they would not give


rise to the selection described_   __________________________________________________







Why?____”genotypes” should be “phenotypes”_______________________________