Biology 2107 Fall, 2022
Name: __________________________ ID#: _____________________
Please circle the letters that precede the most appropriate answer(s) to the question asked. Each correct answer is worth 2pts. Be aware that, unless stated otherwise, a couple of questions MAY have more than one answer. Consequently, when you circle more than one letter in any answer to any given question, an incorrectly circled letter may count against you.
Be careful, some answers may be “true”, but are not relevant to the question being asked.
1. Which one of the following phrases best describes the word, “Gene flow”:
A. the convergence of all the genes/alleles within a population into one, collective gene pool
B. the ebb and flow of genes and alleles within a given population
C. the intermingling of separate traits (genes/alleles) between similar populations
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
2. The term “Directional Selection” refers to: ONLY ONE ANSWER
A. a signal that causes organisms to change direction
B. a guidance system for evolving individuals
C. the skewing of the distribution of a given phenotype of a population in one direction
D. the skewing of the distribution of an individual organism’s phenotype in one direction
E. Both C & D
F. a specific option leading to speciation
3. Some of the more overt characteristics of living organisms include : ONLY ONE ANSWER
A. Living organisms’ survival is independent of its environment
B. Living organisms exist on other planets
C. Living organisms exist -subject to the laws of physics
D. Living organisms require the expenditure of energy to survive.
E. C & D … acceptable
F. Anaerobic organisms need oxygen to survive
4. Based on our discussions in the lectures, which of the following statements is/are correct
A. “Science” is the study of Life
B. A scientific hypothesis is entirely rooted in fact
C. There is no such thing as a fact
D. Observation and the ability to test those observations form the corner stone of scientific method in Biology
E. Hypotheses, by definition, are “wrong”.
F. Theories, by definition, are infallible.
5. Populations that are geographically separated from one another are called.
6. Please select the best combination of terms to complete the following statement.
“Two populations of moths may be diverging because one primarily mates in mid-Spring, while the other primarily mates in early Summer”.
This would be an example of ____________ , that is a ____________ mechanism of isolation.
G. Reproductive isolation, postzygotic
H. Gametic mortality, prezygotic
I. Temporal isolation, postzygotic
J. Behavioural isolation, postzygotic
K. Temporal isolation, prezygotic
L. Gametic isolation, prezygotic
M. Temporal indifference postzygotic
7. From your understanding of the lecture material thus far, which of the following statements would you agree with?
A. Science is a religion, just by another name
B. Science inevitably conflicts with religious beliefs
C. Science brings some religious dogmas such as a “god of the gaps” into question
D. Evolution provides only some insight(s) into how living matter works
E. Science will eventually replace religious beliefs
F. Evolution suggests that there really is no God
G. Science is only pertinent to the “here” and the “now”.
8. An hypothesis becomes a theory (lower case “t”) when:
A. The results of a single experiment support the hypothesis.
B. The hypothesis has been revised many times.
C. The results of more than several experiments fail to support the hypothesis.
D. The results of more than several experiments support the hypothesis.
E. By default after several scientific experiments
9. From our discussions in lecture and viewing of the movie on whales, which of the following statement(s) were mentioned in one of the movies?
G. Whales lived on land.
H. Whales can breath under water
I. Whales appear to swim like Doberman pinschers (dogs) run
J. Whales have always lived in the sea
K. The Sahara desert was once below sea level
F. Whales have an unusually small hip bone.
G. Conclusively, whales evolved from wolves
10. Darwin’s first great opus (publication) was entitled:
A. Voyage of the Beagle
B. Origins of Man
C. My Summer Vacation
D. Origin of Species
F. Pride and Prejudice
What year?________ 1 Bonus point
11. The height of doors in olde houses in England (>300 yrs old) suggest that people back in the 1700’s were relatively short. The overt increase in the average height of people in the British isles since the 1700’s- can be attributed to
A. A “stabilizing selective” change
B. All the tall people up and left for the Americas
C. A “directional selective” change
D. A “redistributive selective” change
E. A “disruptive selective” change
12. Which one of the following statements does not belong in the “Scientific Method” discussed in lectures?
A. Making an observation.
B. Forming an hypothesis.
C. Testing the hypothesis.
D. Making a prediction based on observation.
E. Testing that prediction
F. -see below
G. -see below
If all statements DO NOT belong in the “scientific method”, then circle -> “F”.
If all the statements DO belong in the “scientific method”, then circle -> “G”
13. “Piltdown man” or Eoanthropus dawsoni was:
B. A Hoax or fraud
D. An anomalous offshoot of the sub-species, “Homo sapiens”, which did not survive.
E. Conclusive proof -demonstrating the evolutionary link between Man and ape.
F. The last remaining off-spring of a native tribe in Africa that, in 1912, had not previously been identified in fossil records.
14. A “phenotype” can be defined as:
G. The most essential aspect in the definition of a species
H. A selection of the genes within an individual
I. The apparent physical consequences of a series of allelic interactions
J. A typical occurrence
K. A molecular variant of a genotype.
15. From the information given in the lectures, the Galapagos islands were a potential haven for Darwin to formulate his theory, because:
L. The islands are west of South America, and are, therefore, within the warm waters off the coast of Ecuador.
M. The islands provided sufficient isolation for small populations of finches to rarely interact with their mainland relatives
N. The islands were sparse and did not provide a suitable environment for the finches to live well. Consequently exaggerating the environmental impact of natural selection.
O. The islands were lush and provided more than an ample environment for the finch populations to swell, and thus diversify.
P. Life was thought to have begun on these islands.
Q. England was just too darn cold and wet for Darwin to be able to do any proper field studies
16. Consider the following statements regarding two groups of hominids, Homo erectus and Homo sapiens:. Which one(s) is(are) thought to be true:
R. Both are members of the same species
S. Both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens belong to different genera (plural of genus)
T. Both belong to different families
U. Both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens belong to the same genus
V. Both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens belong to different orders
W. Both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens will eventually become the same species
17. The “bottleneck effect” is thought to give rise to:
N. A significant increase in the survival potential of a population, following a
O. The catastrophic effects of alcoholism on human populations.
P. A significant increase in the allelic content of a population, following a catastrophe
Q. A significant decrease in the number of alleles within a population, following a major
R. An increase in the number of individuals in a population that will be able to withstand the next catastrophe.
BONUS Please give an example of one such bottleneck event in history -or even “prehistory”
__Dinosaur extinction in the late cretaceous period, Deccan Traps volcanic eruption or Toba catastrophy _ (1 pt.)